The prime role of Islam is to help human beings obtain a "second nature," and the major portion of building the Muslim personality comes from the Islamic fundamental of "purification". God's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "God Almighty is good and accepts only that which is good," [Muslim, Bukhari] and that "God does not eliminate an evil with wickedness" [Bukhari]. Since money earned through unlawful means is unlawful, spending such money is also unlawful. If such money is given as charity, this will not be accepted from the donor by God. In fact, this very act doubles the sin rather than preserving the giver from the severity of their sin. For, the person who gives unlawful money makes a good and pure practice of Islam impure with their unlawful earnings, and there will be no blessing or abundance in money earned through such unlawful means.

Being pleased with an evil is a sin in itself. Every Muslim must realize that evils are displeasing to Allah. Out of his love for Allah, a Muslim must hate everything that is displeasing to his Lord. If he does not have this feeling, it is a clear sign that there is a shortcoming in his faith. In addition, he will be held accountable for his liking a sin even if he does not witness or perform that deed. Abu Dawud recorded the following hadith,

Shaban is a month of good that introduces the great month of Ramadan. The Prophet, peace upon him, used to fast voluntarily during this month more so than in any other month. One of the motivations for that is that Shaban is the month during which the deeds performed by the servant ascend to God. What follows is a discussion around fasting during the month of Shaban.

Hazrat Ali said two parties are required in order to bring about oppression. One is the oppressor and the other is the one who accepts the oppression. It is the co-operation of these two that brings about oppression. Oppression cannot be one-sided. An oppressor cannot perform oppression in the air. Oppression is like a piece of iron that is formed by the striking of the hammer of the oppressor upon the anvil of the oppressed.

  1. Conciliation (sulh)

The capacity of conciliation between people differs from that of judgeship. An example is the action of God's Messenger when al-Zubayr and Humayd, a man from the Ansar, quarrelled about a watercourse, which both of them used for irrigation.

The Prophet said to Zubayr: "O Zubayr! Irrigate [your garden] first, and then let the water flow to your neighbour." The Ansari became angry and said, "O God’s Apostle! Is it because he is your cousin?" On that the countenance of God's Apostle changed and he said [to al-Zubayr], "Irrigate [your garden] and then withhold the water till it reaches the walls [surrounding the palms]." Urwah ibn Zubayr commented: "Before that, God's Apostle had given a generous judgment benefiting al-Zubayr and the Ansari, but when the Ansari irritated God's Apostle he gave al-Zubayr his full right according to the evident law." [Bukhari, Muslim]

A similar example is that of Kaab ibn Malik when he demanded repayment of a debt from Abd Allah ibn Abi Hadrad, and their voices grew very loud in the mosque. The Messenger of God passed by them and said: "O Kaab!" beckoning with his hand as if intending to say, "Deduct half of the debt" (out of kindness). Kaab agreed and so he took half of what Ibn Abi Hadrad owed him and remitted the other half. [Bukhari, Muslim]

  1. Advice to those seeking his opinion (isharah)
  2. Concerning the capacity of giving advice to those seeking it, mention can be made of the advice given by God's Messenger to someone who sought it. That is how Zayd ibn Thabit understood the prohibition of God's Messenger to sell fruit before it is ripe. It is reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Zayd that people in the lifetime of God's Apostle used to trade in fruit. When they harvested their dates and the purchasers came to receive their due, the buyers would say, "The dates have gone rotten; they are blighted with disease, they are afflicted with the qusham [a disease which causes the fruits to fall before ripening]." God's Apostle said: "Do not sell the fruits before their benefit is evident." Zayd commented that the Prophet said this "by way of advice, for they quarrelled too much."

..... [to be continued]

Compiled From:
"Treatise on Maqasid Al-Shariah" - Ibn Ashur, pp. 39-41