Goethe à propos de l'islam
Goethe avait dit à propos de l'islam:
« Im Islam leben wir alle , unter welcher Form wir uns auch muth machen (Goethe à chopenhauer 19/IX/1831)
« De quelque façon que nous voulions nous donner du courage, Nous vivons tous en islam »
Cette phrase est surprenante et l’on trouve d’autres dires semblables chez Goethe :
Lettre à J.H. Meyer : Il nous faut persister en islam (29/VII/1816)
A Willemer : « Tôt ou tard nous devrons professer un islam raisonnable. (15/VI/1817) Le 20/IX /1820 .
Il dit à Zelter :
« C’est dans l’islam que je trouve le mieux exprimées mes idées ».
Des sources avec l’aide du professeur K. Mommsen (Berlin), et le professeur Braeuer (Marburg).
La traduction de son livre utilisée pour ce passage des Conversations de Goethe avec Eckermann est celle de Jean Chuzeville, Gallimard, 1988. NdT
Rising cost of higher education
by Assad Bhuglah
Higher education is an investment in the future. A good degree is a stepping stone to higher earnings. But there is growing concern that the soaring cost of higher education is putting it out of reach for many families around the world.
As the economic recession continues, the top three destinations for interantional students, namely the US, the UK and Australia, are all experiencing budget cuts and are shifting the financial burdens on foreign students. The costs of higher education has risen dramatically in the universities of the West to such an extent that students in Quebec took the streets to protest against tuition hike. It is reported that tuition fees in England have risen almost seven-fold over the last decade. As from September 2012 most British Universities are expected to treble annual tuition fees to a maximum of £9000. This spirallying cost will drive many people out from attending universities.
Courage is what happens when your desire to make positive progress is greater than your fear of a negative setback. Courage is what happens when you look at those fears, listen to them, learn from them, use them to prepare, and then move boldly forward.
Courage is how problems are turned into opportunities.
Courage is why some people are able to move the situation forward though there seems to be no hope.
Courage is when you do what you know is right, even if it is the more difficult and unpopular choice.
Courage is something that builds new strength each time it is exercised.
Courage is not something that you must obtain or struggle to develop.
Courage is a choice that can be yours the moment you decide to use it.
Leçon 67: Quotes from Islamic scholars
One who thinks and reflects develops his foresight and Vision.
-Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA)
The failure to attain perception is itself perception.
-Abu Bakr (RA)
Whoever knows all things without knowing God-Great and Glorious-is not worthy to be called wise
because he does not know the most sublime and highest of all things.
A learned man who doesn't restrain his passions is like a blind man holding a torch,
he guides others but not himself.
Mauritius an island without hinterland
by Assad Bhuglah
A small country can literally level up with a big country by expansion of its hinterland. This has been the case with small city-states like Singapore, Hong Kong and Dubai which are adjacent to continental land, thus giving them the possibility to extend their economic activities on a larger scale. Unfortunately, Mauritius does not have such hinterland to fall back upon.
In common parlance, hinterland refers to the inland region or "backcountry" surrounding the urban catchment of large agglomerations or city-states. It is not necessary that a hinterland is incorporated with or under direct control of an urban authority or city-state, but it is sufficient that there is substantial economic interaction between the two.
In the new concept of economic development, the hinterland has become an appropriate term to describe land areas that do not have a city or urbanised function but are not necessarily rural lands. It is often considered as "empty space" not in use due to its natural features. The hinterland, endowed with vast reserve of resources, plays a critical role in supporting the economic development of small economies. On the other side of the coin, this linkage creates spill-over effects and helps in the upliftment and economic transformation of the hinterland.
Singapore is a classical example of an economic development based on hinterland. Its natural hinterland lies in the Malaysian peninsula. Its historical hinterland is the whole of South-East Asia. And its cultural hinterland includes the Middle-East, China and India. By using all these links, Singapore has transformed itself into a commercial hub for the whole world.
Although Mauritius is strategically located in the Indian Ocean, it is disadvantaged by its geographical remoteness from mainland Africa. Its nearest neighbours are the Mascareign islands hardly capable of fulfilling the role of hinterland. Reunion and Seychelles are themselves handicapped by their exiguity of territorial space. Madagascar, on which much hope has been banked, is a difficult terrain to harness, not only because of inexistence or poor level of infrastructure but mostly because of the perpetual uncertainty and political instability.
To sustain its economic development, the small Mauritius will require more territorial space to meet the aspirations and demands of its growing population. More and more agricultural lands and forests will have to be cleared to make space for urbanisation, roads, parking, industrial states, commercial complexes, tourism-related amenities and leisure parks. Even the marginal lands will be exhausted by putting additional spaces to cater for cemeteries and dumping grounds for wastes.
The challenge for Mauritius is to look for more territorial spaces abroad, but in a secure environment, in order to carry some of its economic activities offshore. There is still possibility for a country that does not have a hinterland to create its own, more or less on the same patterns of the South Korean model. The South Koreans do not have a major territorial hinterland apart from their hostile neighbours in the north. South Korea invested massively in an offshore hinterland in Vietnam since early 1990s, and it is today reaping the reaping the rewards of a rising Vietnam.
Mauritius must make intelligent and smart use of its cultural hinterland in order to reap economic dividends there from. The historical and cultural links of Mauritius with France, China, India and Pakistan must serve as important conduit to evolve offshore. It is true that Mauritius geographically belongs to the African continent, but we cannot go alone to harness the resources of the mainland. We need strong and reliable partners to accompany us in our African adventure. For this, we need to turn towards our partners of cultural affinities and synergize our relations into triangular cooperation so as to achieve our objective of extended hinterland.