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Ramadan Program 2018


Electronic Surveillance: a choice between privacy and national security

By Assad Bhuglah

Electronic Surveillance or Mass surveillance is the practice of spying on an entire, or significant part
of a population. It can involve anything from CCTV monitoring and email interceptions, to wire-
tapping and computer hacking. Often, electronic surveillance is carried out by the state but it can
also be carried out by corporations, either on behalf of government or on their own initiative.

United Nations: a failed organization?

By Assad Bhuglah

The United Nations, the biggest intergovernmental organization in the world, which was hoped to be
a beacon of peace and stability around the world, is considered incapable of bringing peace to the
most serious conflicts or contributing to the stability of post-conflict societies. Every diplomatic
tension, geopolitical dispute, international conflict and humanitarian crisis contributes to the already
existing negative perception of the organization.

Turkey’s Soft Power in the Middle East

Assad Bhuglah

Turkey’s soft power capacity comes from its history, culture and geography. Rather than seeing
them as obstacles or burdens, the Turks are now turning them into strategic assets in both domestic
and foreign policy. There have been profound changes in Turkish Foreign Policy when compared to
what it was in post 1923 and what it is in the 2000s. Turkey’s strategic assets are derived from
combination of two elements: history and geography. Moreover, the country has a certain cultural
value that spans centuries and it may become a soft power in international relations. The new
Turkish public diplomacy is building on Turkey’s expanding soft power in the Balkans, the Middle
East and the Caucasus.

The Defiant Catalonia

By Assad Bhuglah

The fierce rivalry between FC Barcelona and Real Madrid, Spain's top football clubs is not just about
sports, but is an expression of a latent sentiment of Catalan identity. Barcelona is the proud capital
of Catalonia, one of the autonomous communities of Spain.

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